How should patients with cardiopulmonary and respiratory diseases resist smog?
PM2.5 has become the number one killer of air pollution. Ordinary people face smog and can’t prevent it. For some people who have heart and lung disease, respiratory disease and weak resistance, how to breathe healthily is a seriously test.
First, PM2.5 is more harmful to patients with respiratory diseases
The most direct and most influential effect of PM2.5 on the human body is the damage to the respiratory system. Beginning in 2004, Pan Xiaochuan, a professor at the Peking University School of Medicine, began monitoring the daily average concentration of PM2.5 in the air. He found that the number of emergency patients in the nearby hospital respiratory system changed significantly as the value increased. Studies in previous years have shown that the number of patients with PM2.5 growth in hospitals with respiratory-related emergency-related diseases is positively correlated. For every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 daily average, the emergency volume is likely to increase by 0.5% to 1%.
The fine particles below PM2.5, the nose and throat of the human body can not stop, they can go down all the way into the bronchioles, alveoli, and then enter the capillaries through the alveolar wall, and then enter the entire blood circulation system.
PM2.5 is like a carrier that carries many harmful substances such as bacteria, carcinogens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and so on. A large amount of particulate matter enters the lungs and has a clogging effect on local tissues, which can reduce the ventilation of local bronchus, loss of ventilation function of bronchioles and alveoli, and particulate matter adsorbing harmful gases can also stimulate or even corrode the alveolar wall. The most direct effect is that it is easy to cause irritation, cough, and difficulty breathing.
For patients with respiratory diseases themselves, inhaling excessive amounts of PM2.5 may result in decreased lung function, causing and aggravating asthma, rhinitis, and chronic bronchitis, which may cause lung sclerosis and toxic particles that remain in the alveoli. Eventually it will affect our epithelial tissue, inactivate the tumor suppressor gene, and induce lung cancer.
On October 17, 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at the meeting in Lyon had identified the atmospheric pollutant PM2.5 as a primary carcinogen (a definition of one level: a carcinogen for humans). At this point, in addition to affecting cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, PM2.5 will increase the risk of lung cancer.
Second, PM2.5 is more harmful to patients with cardiopulmonary disease
On February 20, 2013, a study published in the European Heart Journal showed that PM2.5 was positively associated with heart disease mortality. The higher the PM2.5 concentration, the higher the mortality rate of heart disease patients. . Patients with acute coronary syndromes will have an increased mortality rate if exposed to excessive 2.5 micron inhalable particulate matter in the air.
A previous US data study also confirmed the cardiovascular hazard of PM2.5. The study confirmed that for every 10 micrograms per cubic meter of PM2.5 daily increase, that is, for each 144 micrograms of PM2.5 inhalation (10 micrograms per cubic meter x 0.01 cubic meters x 60 minutes x 24 hours), the mortality rate of cardiopulmonary disease rises. 6% higher, lung cancer mortality increased by 8%.
When the PM2.5 content in the air increases, the absolute oxygen content decreases, and the amount of oxygen inhaled by the human body decreases. Because the pulmonary vesicles in the lungs are important parts of blood oxygen exchange, if the lungs are blocked by PM2.5 particles. , the function of exchanging oxygen with the pulmonary capillaries is reduced, and blood oxygen exchange is insufficient. The reduction of oxygen in the blood will cause a series of adaptive changes in the human body. Two prominent points, one is to ensure the oxygen supply of the human body, the blood flow will become faster in the blood vessel; the second is that the blood vessel membrane will become thicker, the blood vessel cavity will become narrower, and the risk of thrombosis will increase.
In addition to changes in the vascular membrane, many harmful substances carried by PM2.5, directly into the blood after inhalation, will directly damage the intima of the blood vessel, thereby thickening the vascular intima, causing stenosis, increasing blood pressure, etc., and increasing the thrombus. may. It even causes heart disease such as congestive heart failure and coronary artery disease.
In the haze days with high PM2.5 concentration, the sun is often blocked, the temperature is often low, some high blood pressure, coronary heart disease patients go from warm indoors to cold outside, the blood vessels expand and contract, and the blood pressure rises. high. The blood vessel wall of the elderly is very thin, and it is easy to cause stroke and myocardial infarction after the blood pressure is raised. In addition, upper respiratory tract infections caused by smog, pneumonia and other symptoms can easily induce heart failure in patients with heart disease, which can lead to shock or even death.
So, what protective measures should we take for such people?
What protective measures should be taken?
1.Try to reduce the door
Smog days should be minimized, or outdoor activities should be reduced. Try not to go to many places, such as supermarkets, shopping malls and hospitals. These places have poor air circulation and are prone to cross-infection of respiratory diseases. This type of group generally does not recommend wearing professional protective masks for a long time, because the masks of N90 and N95 series have large respiratory resistance, and there will be chest tightness and uncomfortable feeling after wearing. If you must wear it, you can consult a doctor first. At the same time, after going out, you should wash your face and bare skin immediately, or rinse your nose with water.
2.Tinstall air purifiers, plant green plants
It is best to install an air purifier with PM2.5 particles in the home. It is good for removing PM2.5, and it can increase the relative humidity in the air and make it more comfortable to breathe. For details on how to purchase an air purifier, please refer to the special content of my station.
Plants with relatively strong adsorption capacity can be planted in balconies, terraces, indoors, and large leaf plants can be selected as much as possible. Because of the large leaf area and many pores, it can not only adsorb PM2.5, but also increase the oxygen content of air. Such as green radish, evergreen, tiger skin, ivy and so on.
3.Do indoor cleaning
Such people spend more time indoors, pay special attention to cleanliness, wipe the tables and chairs with water in the house and mop the floor, because the humid air helps to reduce dust and fine particles floating in the air. In addition, the use of a humidifier, the placement of towels on the heater, the cleaning of sheets, pillows, etc. with a wet towel are all desirable methods of absorbing fine dust. In addition, use as little as possible air cleaning agents or insecticides, including aldehydes, benzenes and other pollutants.
Bed bedding should be exposed frequently, tapped, and washable bedding such as bedspreads, duvet covers, etc. should be cleaned frequently, and washed with hot water above 55 °C or even 100 °C to kill mites. If the economic conditions permit, the bedding should be replaced once every 2 to 5 years.
In the diet, we must pay attention to the ‘six but not’ principle: eating should not be too salty, too sweet (chocolate), too greasy (animal fat), should not eat too much spicy, spicy food, etc., should not eat too much allergic protein food ( Milk, fish, seafood, etc.), should not be full.
Drink plenty of water, pay attention to light diet, use cold, steamed, boiled, marinated, etc. instead of fried, fried, fried. Eat more foods rich in vitamin C, vitamin A, protein and other nutrients to enhance their resistance.
5.Pay attention to adjust mood, avoid excessive fatigue
Anxiety, sadness, over-excitement, and even laughter can also lead to cardiovascular disease. People who are psychologically vulnerable and have psychological barriers will feel abnormally heavy, nervous, and depressed in this weather. These people should pay attention to emotional regulation in the foggy days. You can listen to music and do something that you feel happy about. It is necessary to maintain a scientific law of life, avoid overwork, ensure adequate sleep, and reduce psychological stress.
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