What is water pollution?
Water pollution classification
There are two types of water pollution: one is natural pollution; the other is man-made pollution. At present, the most harmful to the water body is man-made pollution. Water pollution can be mainly divided into chemical pollution and physical pollution according to different pollution impurities. And biological pollution in three major categories.
Polluted impurities are water pollution caused by chemicals. Chemical pollution can be divided into 6 categories according to specific pollution impurities:
(1) Inorganic pollutants: The inorganic pollutants polluting water bodies are acid, alkali and some inorganic salts. Acid-base pollution changes the pH value of water bodies, hinders the self-purification of water bodies, and corrodes ships and underwater buildings, affecting Fishery.
(2) Inorganic toxic substances: inorganic toxic substances that pollute water bodies are mainly substances with potential long-term effects such as heavy metals, mainly including mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and other elements.
(3) Organic toxic substances: The organic toxic substances polluting water bodies are mainly various organic pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. Most of them are synthetic substances, which are chemically stable and difficult to be decomposed by organisms.
(4) Aerobic pollutants: organic acids such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, phenols and alcohols contained in domestic sewage and certain industrial wastewaters can be decomposed by microorganisms. In the process of decomposition, a large amount of oxygen is required. Called aerobic pollutants.
(5) Plant nutrients: mainly plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in domestic and industrial sewage, and residual nitrogen and phosphorus in farmland drainage.
(6) Oil-based pollutants: mainly refers to the pollution of oil to water bodies, especially marine oil production and tanker accidents.
Physical pollution includes:
(1) Suspended material pollution: suspended matter refers to insoluble substances contained in water, including solid materials and foam plastics. They are wastes from domestic sewage, garbage, and mining, quarrying, construction, food processing, papermaking, etc. The suspended matter caused by water and soil loss in water or farmland affects the appearance of water, hinders the photosynthesis of plants in water, reduces the dissolution of oxygen, and is unfavorable to aquatic organisms.
(2) Thermal pollution: If the cooling water from various industrial processes is directly discharged into the water body without taking measures, it may cause the water temperature to rise, the dissolved oxygen content to decrease, and the toxicity of some toxic substances in the water to increase. Thus endangering the growth of fish and aquatic life.
(3) Radioactive pollution: Due to the development of the atomic energy industry, the exploitation of radioactive mineral deposits, the establishment of nuclear tests and nuclear power plants, and the application of isotopes in the fields of medicine, industry, and research, the radioactive wastewater, and waste are significantly increased, causing certain radioactive pollution.
Domestic sewage, especially hospital sewage and some industrial wastewater polluting water, can often bring in some pathogenic microorganisms. For example, some pathogenic bacteria originally found in the intestines of humans and animals, such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, cholera bacteria, etc. can pass through humans and animals. The feces are polluted and enter the water body and spread with the water. Some viruses, such as hepatitis virus and adenovirus, are also found in polluted water. Some parasitic diseases such as amoebic dysentery, schistosomiasis, leptospirosis, etc. It can also be spread by water. Preventing the contamination of water by pathogenic microorganisms is also a major issue to protect the environment and protect human health.
The source of water when the earth is formed
Source of water
The Earth is the only planet among the eight major solar systems covered by liquid water. The origin of water on the earth is very different in academics. There are dozens of different water formation theories. There are opinions that in the early days of the formation of the earth, the original Hydrogen in the atmosphere, oxidized synthetic water, and water vapor gradually condense and form oceans. It is also believed that the formation of the earth’s nebula material originally contained water. In addition, it is believed that silicates and other substances in the original crust are affected by volcanoes. Influence and reaction, precipitation of water. There are also views that the comets and meteorites attracted by the earth are the main sources of water on the earth, and even the water on the earth is still increasing.
When we open the world map, when we face the globe, most of the area presented to us is bright blue. Looking at the earth from space, the earth we live in is an elliptical, extremely beautiful azure sphere. Water is the most natural material on the surface of the earth. It covers more than 70% of the earth’s surface. The earth is veritable big water polo.
Some people may ask: Where is the water coming from? Is there water on earth?
When the earth was just born, there was no river, no ocean, no life, its surface was dry, and there was little water in the atmosphere. Now the vast sea, the endless river, the vast lakes, the strange shape The eternal years of ice and snow, as well as the underground springs and the rain and snow in the sky, where did the water come from?
The original Earth is a mixture of interstellar matter differentiated by the solar nebula. Its basic composition is hydrogen and nitrogen and some dust. Solid dust gathers to form the core of the earth, surrounded by a large amount of gas. When the earth is formed, the structure is loose. The quality is not large, the gravitation is small, and the temperature is very low. Later, as the earth continues to shrink, the radioactive material of the core generates energy, causing the earth’s temperature to rise continuously. Some substances slowly warm and melt, and heavier substances such as iron and nickel. The nucleus is formed at the center, and the lightest material floats on the surface. As the surface temperature of the earth gradually decreases, the surface begins to form a hard crust. However, due to the high temperature inside the earth, the magma activity is very intense. The volcanic eruption is very frequent. The earth’s crust is also constantly changing. In some places, ridges form peaks, and some places sink to form lowlands and valleys. At the same time, a large amount of gas is emitted. As the earth’s volume shrinks, gravity also increases. At this time, these gases are unable to get rid of the earth. The gravitational force, which surrounds the earth, constitutes the “primitive earth atmosphere.” The original atmosphere is composed of various components, and water vapor is among them. One.
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