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Smoking pollution of indoor air

Smoking pollution of indoor air

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Today, there are more and more people who are exposed to smoking and passive smoking. Smokers may not have a deep understanding of the dangers of smoking to themselves and others. In fact, smoking can shorten your life. Second-hand smoke from smoking can pollute indoor air and affect the health of people around you, especially young children, babies and fetuses. Both smokers and passive smokers can take some measures to prevent tobacco damage.

Of course, the most fundamental measure is to stay away from tobacco pollution.

The harm of smoking to the human body

Smoking can shorten a person’s life. The World Health Organization report shows that the harm of smoking to humans is multifaceted, mainly leading to asthma, pneumonia, lung cancer, hypertension, heart disease and reproductive development.

Smoking is one of the main causes of chronic bronchitis, emphysema and chronic airway obstruction. Experimental studies have found that long-term smoking can damage and shorten the cilia of the bronchial mucosa, affecting the clearance function of cilia. In addition, submucosal gland hyperplasia, hypertrophy, increased mucus secretion, and changes in composition, easy to block bronchioles. In dog experiments, exposure to large amounts of soot can cause emphysema changes.

Chronic bronchitis in smokers is 2 to 4 times higher than that of non-smokers, and is proportional to the amount of smoking and smoking years. Patients often have chronic cough, sputum and difficulty breathing during activities. Pulmonary function tests showed obstruction of the airways, decreased lung compliance, decreased ventilation and diffuse function, and decreased arterial oxygen partial pressure. Even young asymptomatic smokers have mild lung dysfunction. COPD is prone to spontaneous pneumothorax. Smokers often suffer from chronic pharyngitis and vocal corditis.

Respiratory diseases are one of the most harmful diseases for Chinese people. Death caused by lung cancer ranks first among all cancers. According to the latest figures from the World Health Organization, there are 3 million people worldwide each year, with more than 8,000 people every day, and 6 people die every night from diseases caused by smoking. The deaths per minute include 1 in the United States, 2 in Europe, 1 in the former Soviet Union, 1 in China, and 1 in other countries. Experts expect this number to rise to 10 million in 2020. Currently 30% of cancers, 75% of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, and 25% of heart disease are caused by smoking. If no effective smoking ban is taken, by 2025, there will be about 10 million people worldwide each year, that is, 27,000 people a day, and 19 people will die from smoking-related diseases every minute, 70% of them in developing countries. One-third of young people are likely to become “permanent smokers,” meaning that a large number of them will die prematurely between the ages of 35 and 69. It is well known that the nuclear bombs that landed in Nagasaki and Hiroshima in Japan 50 years ago swallowed more than 200,000 people, but they ignored the current figure, which is only 1/15 of the total number of people killed by smoking each year.

The effect of smoke on indoor air

Tobacco smoke is the main source of indoor respirable particulate matter and constitutes 90% to 93% of indoor respirable particulate matter under smoking conditions. These respirable particulates are the carriers of most pollutants and microbial adsorption. Fine particles (PM2.5) with a diameter of less than 2.5 microns are more easily absorbed into the lungs and are the main health hazard in tobacco smoke. Therefore, measuring the concentration of PM2.5 in indoor air helps to understand the degree of harm of indoor tobacco smoke, and is a commonly used method for evaluating the exposure level of secondhand smoke. According to the monitoring data of PM2.5 concentration in public places, the average concentration of PM2.5 in the completely non-smoking place is the lowest, which is 33.3 μg/m3. In contrast, the average concentration of PM2.5 in non-smoking places is 103.95 μg/m3, which is more than three times the concentration of PM2.5 in a completely smoke-free place. The concentration of PM2.5 in bars and nightclubs that are not smoking-free is 4 times that of completely non-smoking places. Moreover, the concentration of PM2.5 in the smoking room of the station is 300 times that of the outdoor, and the concentration of PM2.5 measured at 5 meters from the smoking room is still 18 times that of the outdoor. 120 minutes after smoking, the concentration of inhaled particulate matter can be reduced to the standard limit.

The smoke emitted during smoking is the main source of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the general room. A cigarette emits about 80 mg of carbon monoxide and about 100 mg of carbon dioxide. Especially in some public places, people are dense, and the concentration of carbon monoxide in the air is very high. . According to the survey, in a crowded conference room, the concentration of carbon monoxide reached 46.4 mg/m3. When smoking in a normal room, the concentration of carbon monoxide was often between 2.3 and 11.6 mg/m3.

The smoke contains a high concentration of carcinogens. Cigarette smoke contains 69 kinds of carcinogens such as nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, benzopyrene and formaldehyde. The concentration of carcinogen benzopyrene can be as high as 0.16 micrograms per cubic meter of air. Moreover, the smoke of tobacco also contains a relatively high concentration of formaldehyde. As long as two cigarettes are smoked in a 30 square meter indoor space, the concentration of formaldehyde in the indoor air can reach 0.1 mg/m3 or more. At 180 minutes after smoking, the formaldehyde concentration was still exceeded.

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