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It’s not just outdoor foggy

It’s not just outdoor foggy

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Recently, the ‘Online Interview’ program invited Wei Jianrong, director of the Environmental Health Center of Beijing CDC, and Wu Yanbing, a respiratory and critically ill medical doctor at Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, to answer the knowledge about the prevention and control of haze. Experts remind that in this weather, there is also smog in the room, and at least try to do strenuous exercise at home.

Wei Jianrong said: ‘The high degree of smog in the air does not necessarily mean the amount that we can breathe. Basically, the concentration of outdoor smog is much higher than that of indoors. But there will be smog in the room. We recommend smog. If there is less weather, you should try to do less vigorous activities at home. For example, in Beijing, 80%-90% of the time in the haze is indeed indoors, but the time and concentration are different in different rooms. The amount of smog that is inhaled into the body will be affected. We especially recommend that you try to go out as much as possible in the haze, and also do less activities that may increase the indoor haze, such as cooking and frying. It does increase the concentration of smog in the room. Also, do not do some activities with a large amount of exercise, which will increase the rate of breathing. Therefore, the amount of smog inhaled is related to the concentration on the one hand, and the other on the other. The amount is related. When the activity intensity is relatively large, the amount of breathing is relatively large, and the amount inhaled into the human body is relatively large. If the haze does not go out, everyone runs at home, or does some work. We don’t recommend the heavy work, so the amount of smog sucked into the human body will increase relatively.’

Wu Yanbing also said that there is indeed smog in the room: ‘In fact, the interior is definitely awkward. My personal experience, as long as a dish is cooked, our home air purifier will turn red. To remind everyone that it is not indoors. Smoking. In addition to air purifiers, green plants may have a certain effect on the toxic substances in the air. There is water, and now many places have decorations. In large hotels and restaurants, water curtains are often seen. Decoration, also has some adsorption on some hydrophilic airborne particles.’

Since it is not suitable for going out when there is fog, staying at home all day, do you need to open the window for ventilation? Wei Jianrong gave an answer to this question: ‘When it comes to window ventilation, many people are asking when to open the window for better ventilation. We have also done some research and found that except for winter, the other three seasons have similar effects, because the haze has A rising period and a climbing period are regular, but since we can’t see its inflection point, it is recommended to keep the window open during the smog, as long as the smog does not scatter, the value of the levitation is relatively high. In good weather, the best time to open the window is in the morning every morning, and it is no problem to open the window during the morning to 12 noon. Because everyone knows that the haze weather has come to close the window, then there is no smog. At that time, everyone must open the window in time to ventilate, otherwise those who enter the room during the smog will have the effect of staying, and will stay for one or two days, so it is recommended that everyone should open the window in time when the weather is good.’

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How to prevent PM2.5 under severe haze

How to prevent PM2.5 under severe haze

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When PM2.5 is inhaled into the human body, it can easily cause diseases including asthma, bronchitis and cardiovascular diseases. The main source of PM2.5 production is the residue emitted by combustion during daily power generation, industrial production, and automobile exhaust emissions.

PM2.5 refers to particles in the atmosphere with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microns. Its diameter is less than 1/20 of the thickness of human hair. Medical experts believe that fine particles with a particle size below 2.5 microns are equivalent to human hair. The size of 1/10 is not easy to block. When PM2.5 is inhaled into the human body, it can easily cause diseases including asthma, bronchitis and cardiovascular diseases. The main source of PM2.5 production is the residue emitted by combustion during daily power generation, industrial production, and automobile exhaust emissions.

About 2.1 million people die every year from the increase in particulate matter such as PM2.5

It is reported that the 2012 Global Environment Outlook 5 published by the United Nations Environment Program pointed out that 700,000 people die each year from respiratory diseases caused by ozone, and nearly 2 million premature deaths are related to particulate pollution. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) also published a research report saying that the average life expectancy of humans has been shortened by five and a half years because of air pollution.

According to a report released by the World Bank, the number of premature deaths caused by outdoor air pollution averages 1,000 per day, and between 35 and 400,000 people face death each year. Specifically, as early as 1997, the World Bank estimated that 50,000 Chinese people died prematurely because of air pollution. Overall, the report found that air pollution in China has reduced the life expectancy of urban residents by 18 years.

London poison fog incident

The toxic fog on December 5, 1952 was one of the most painful moments in London’s history. The poisonous fog caused at least 4,000 deaths. Countless Londoners had difficulty breathing, traffic was rampant for many days, and millions of people were affected. World Health Organization first identified PM2.5 carcinogenicity On October 17, 2013, the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer issued a report that first identified air pollution as a cause of cancer in humans and regarded it as a universal and major environmental carcinogen. However, although air pollution has been proposed as a holistic carcinogen, its damage to the human body may be the result of the simultaneous action of several major contaminants it contains.

Injury organ

Long-term exposure to particles can cause cardiovascular and respiratory diseases as well as lung cancer. When the concentration of PM2.5 in the air is higher than 10 for a long time, it will bring about an increase in the risk of death. For every 10 increase in concentration, the total risk of death increased by 4%, the risk of death from cardiopulmonary disease increased by 6%, and the risk of death from lung cancer increased by 8%. In addition, PM2.5 is highly resistant to organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals, which significantly increase the risk of carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic.

Impact climate

It is generally believed that PM2.5 is only air pollution. In fact, the impact of PM2.5 on the overall climate may be even worse. PM2.5 can affect cloud formation and rainfall processes, indirectly affecting climate change. In addition to salt in seawater, fine particulate matter PM2.5 is also an important source of condensation in the atmosphere. Under some conditions, there are too many PM2.5s, which may “divide” water, so that the clouds in the sky will grow little, and the blue sky and white clouds will become less than before. Under some conditions, PM2.5 will increase the condensation of condensed nodules. The number of raindrops in the sky increases, and extreme rains may occur.

How to prevent PM2.5

1.Use a small particle size ionizer to intercept

Compared with large particle size negative ions, small particle size negative ions can be more fully combined with suspended particles such as PM2.5 in the air to change the physical properties of the floating dust, make them adhere to each other, and finally settle to the ground. Moreover, the small particle size negative ions have higher self-activity and longer migration distance, and the dust removal effect is more remarkable through irregular Brownian motion in the air.

2.Open the window when driving less

3.Do not smoke indoors

Experimental statistics

The PM2.5 value of 198 mg/cube before the cigarette was smoked. The value of a cigarette increased to 685 mg/cubic in one minute. The two cigarettes were 1394 mg/cubic, 90% of which were derived from the particles in second-hand cigarettes. .

4.Wash your face and bare skin

The oil will absorb fine particles in the air, including PM2.5, to clean the face and exposed skin indoors, which can prevent secondary pollution of PM2.5 indoors.

5.Do not open the window in the fog

Fog, a condensation of water suspended in the low ground near the ground, is often dissolved in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and metals and organic compounds attached to the surface, especially PM2.5. In foggy weather, especially in ash weather, when PM2.5 concentration is relatively high, it is best to leave the door less and close the door and window.

6.Residents near the small hotel should open less window

When cooking, people may cough or have a sore throat. This is PM2.5 inhaled in soot and gas exhaust. Professor Yin Yan, Dean of Nanxin University’s School of Atmospheric Physics, said that some open-air barbecue stalls in Nanjing City, the smoke emitted by small restaurants have not been treated, and contain a large amount of PM2.5. In particular, residents in the vicinity should pay attention to opening windows as little as possible. .

7. Front-street households open less windows

The traffic volume in the morning and evening peaks is large, and the dust generated by the exhaust gas and the human action is superimposed, and the air pollution will be more serious. At this time, it is better to close the window.

8.Choose a good time to go out to exercise

9.Install the air purifier

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Smoking is the ‘culprit’ that causes indoor PM2.5 to soar

Smoking is the ‘culprit’ that causes indoor PM2.5 to soar

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In addition to the well-known nicotine and carbon monoxide, cigarettes, cigars and pipes produce a lot of tiny particles in the case of incomplete combustion. Most of these particles are only about 1 micron in diameter, which belongs to the category of PM2.5. These include 69 carcinogens and 172 harmful substances, which are the leading risk factors for lung cancer. The harm of second-hand smoke is mainly carbon monoxide and PM2.5 released during smoking. These two substances are also abundant in automobile exhaust. When the indoor PM2.5 concentration exceeds the standard, people may have symptoms such as cough, slight dizziness, headache, and nausea.

Carbon monoxide gas is colorless, odorless, and non-irritating. It is very common in nature, but its content is very small. After inhalation, the red blood cell oxygen supply capacity will decrease, and the body will be deficient, causing dizziness and vomiting. Serious cases may also lead to coma and even Suffocation and death. Gas poisoning is well known to us, most of which is caused by carbon monoxide.

PM2.5 can enter the bronchioles and alveoli directly, then enter the capillaries through the alveolar wall, and then enter the entire blood circulation system, and can not be excreted. In the short term, symptoms such as cough, difficulty breathing, and aggravation of asthma may occur. Long-term exposure will lead to decreased lung function, chronic bronchitis, non-fatal heart disease, premature death of patients with cardiopulmonary disease, and lung cancer.

Indoor burning half cigarettes PM2.5 concentration exceeds 15 times

Previously, the staff of the Harbin Anti-Treasure Office measured the change of indoor PM2.5 concentration after smoking indoors. In the conference room where the doors and windows are closed and the air conditioner is not turned on, the staff turns on the PM2.5 concentration in the instrument test room. The instrument showed that the indoor PM2.5 concentration was 15 μg/m3 before smoking, which was far less than the indoor PM2.5 concentration specified by national health standards should be no more than 75 μg/m3. When the staff ignited the cigarette about 2 meters away from the instrument, the PM2.5 concentration displayed by the instrument instantly rose to 452 μg/m3, and the value was still rising as the cigarette burned. At half the cigarette burned, the PM2.5 concentration monitored by the instrument has risen to 943 μg/m3.

In fact, only the ignition does not suck, the cigarette is not completely burned, and if it is smoking, the PM2.5 concentration will rise even higher. After the staff inhaled a cigarette and spit it out, the instrument data immediately exploded, indicating that the value has exceeded 1200 μg/m3, which is 15 times higher than the national indoor PM2.5 concentration standard.

Indoor smoking, need to open the window for more than 16 hours

Liu Ting, deputy director of the Harbin Anti-smoking Office, said, ‘The indoor PM2.5 tiny particles are mainly from tobacco smoke. Even if only one cigarette is smoked indoors, it is necessary to open the window for more than 16 hours to restore the indoor PM2.5 concentration to The previous level.’

Even if the window is ventilated, indoor smoking will leave the problem of three-handed smoke. ‘Three-handed smoke’ refers to tobacco residues left on the surface of clothes, walls, carpets, furniture and even hair and skin after the smokers ‘swallow the clouds’. According to the study, cigarette residues can exist for days, weeks or even months, even if there are ventilation, air filtration and other devices in the home can not completely eliminate PM2.5. In the case of wind or movement, the residue will also diffuse into the air, causing the PM2.5 concentration to rise again.

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Effective countermeasures to eliminate indoor air pollution

Effective countermeasures to eliminate indoor air pollution

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1.Increasing the frequency of indoor ventilation is a key measure to reduce pollution. In the spring, summer and autumn, the average family should leave vents or often open ‘small windows’; in the winter, at least 10 minutes in the morning, afternoon and evening. In places where crowds of classrooms, theaters, carriages, shops, etc. are gathered, special attention should be paid to ventilation and ventilation.

2.Absolutely quit smoking in the room and work and study rooms.

3.Households that use coal, firewood, etc. to maintain the stove, always maintain a good ventilation, to prevent incomplete combustion.

4.Pay attention to the air hygiene in the kitchen. Every time you finish cooking, you must open the window to change the air; when frying and frying food, you should strengthen the ventilation. Soot pollution is especially harmful to the human body. It is better to install a kitchen range hood.

5.Proper use of household chemicals. When using chemical agents, the window should be opened. After use, the window should not be closed immediately. At least the window should be opened for half an hour.

6.Do everything possible to increase the time of outdoor activities. On a good holiday, the whole family should go out of the house and go to nature. For the old, weak, sick, disabled and young children who have stayed indoors for a long time, they should arrange certain outdoor activities for them. Chronic patients, especially those who can’t take care of themselves in bed or in the second place, are important indoor pollution sources, and in turn are the primary victims. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the care and hygiene care for such patients, wash and change clothes and bedding, and pay attention to frequent window ventilation.

7.Put some flowers and plants indoors. It is also very effective to eliminate or reduce the harm caused by ‘decoration syndrome’ to people.

8.Install an air purifier. When using an air purifier, pay attention to window ventilation and pay attention to air flow.

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The harm of indoor air pollution to children cannot be ignored!

The harm of indoor air pollution to children cannot be ignored!

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According to a survey by indoor environmental experts, modern people spend an average of 80% of their time indoors and 65% of their time at home. The degree of indoor air pollution in modern cities is many times higher than in the outdoor! So who is indoors and is exposed to indoor air pollution? It is those children, pregnant women, the elderly and chronic patients, especially children who are more vulnerable to indoor air pollution than adults. This is because, on the one hand, because the child’s body is growing, the amount of breathing is 50% higher than that of the adult. On the other hand, children spend 80% of their time living indoors.

So, what harm does indoor environmental pollution cause to children’s health?

1.Inducing bloody diseases in children.

Medical research has proven that environmental pollution has become the main cause of leukemia. The Harbin Institute of Hematology and Oncology has treated more than 1,500 children with blood diseases last year. Among them, leukemia patients are as high as 80%, and most of them are 4 years old. Why do children become the current high-risk population of leukemia? Ma Jun, the director of the institute, said that in addition to the internal factors that children’s immune function is relatively fragile, harmful gases such as formaldehyde emitted from interior decoration materials are one of the ‘killers’;

2.Increase the incidence of asthma in children.

From the US experts’ investigation of asthma caused by indoor air pollution, it can be seen that among American children, asthma accounts for 12.4% of the total population of the United States. The disease affects children in each age group, and 65% of children have asthma to varying degrees. The World Health Organization announces that 100,000 people worldwide die from asthma every year because of indoor air pollution, and 35% of them are children. According to statistics, the prevalence of asthma in children in China is 2-5%, and the prevalence rate of children aged 1-5 is as high as 85%! Formaldehyde has become a major cause of asthma in children.

3.Leading to lead poisoning in children.

Increasing environmental lead pollution is the root cause of lead poisoning in people, especially children. Especially with the rapid development of the economy, urban transportation has developed rapidly, various interior decoration materials have emerged in an endless stream, interior decoration has entered thousands of households, children’s toys have become increasingly abundant, and lead from gasoline and paint constitutes pollution to the indoor environment. According to a survey conducted by an indoor health survey organization in the United Kingdom, the average lead content in the air in the house is twice as high as that in the park soil, which is a great threat to young children who often move indoors. According to the survey, only 20% of children in Beijing have excessive blood lead levels.

4.Make children’s intelligence greatly reduced.

In 2001, the UK’s £15 million ‘Global Environmental Change’ research team, after summarizing the research reports of scientists from various countries and conducting a large number of investigations and analysis, published a shocking conclusion: environmental pollution makes humans, especially children. The intelligence is greatly reduced! Dr. Williams of the University of London Institute of Education, who participated in the study, said: ‘This result goes beyond people’s previous estimates that the human brain is being damaged by human behavior.’

Therefore, no matter from the child’s physical or intellectual development, the harm of indoor environmental pollution to children can not be ignored.

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Indoor pollution, the most injured in infants and young children

Indoor pollution, the most injured in infants and young children

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Indoor air pollution is a condition in which harmful chemical factors, physical factors, and/or biological factors enter indoor air and have reached a direct or indirect, near-term or long-term, or potentially harmful effect on the body’s physical and mental health.

Generally speaking, indoor air pollution refers to the indoor environmental pollution behavior that affects human health due to excessive levels of harmful substances in indoor air caused by various reasons. Hazardous substances include formaldehyde, benzene, ammonia, radioactive cesium, and the like. As the degree of pollution increases, the human body will produce sub-health reactions and even threaten life safety.

What harm does indoor air pollution have to infants and young children?

According to research published by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency, indoor air pollution levels are generally much higher than outdoor environmental pollution, usually 2 to 5 times, and in extreme cases more than 100 times. People spend 90% of their time indoors, especially when babies and children breathe more air than adults (by spirometry/weight ratio), so they contact and inhale more indoor pollutants. They are the special group that suffers the most from indoor air pollution. In the long run, it also has an impact on children’s health. In communities where PM is heavily polluted, children’s lungs develop more slowly and the efficiency of transporting air is not as high as that of children in the clean air community.

There are many ways for children to come into contact with pollution sources: not only can they infiltrate polluted air through the respiratory tract, but also contact various sources of pollution through skin contact, sucking, and biting. In particular, infants and young children have an additional route of contact, which is obtained by sucking and biting the toys and articles, and by contacting the skin of the parents who use the cosmetics.

Detoxification and detoxification function of infants and young children is not perfect: the liver used for detoxification and detoxification of kidneys are immature, and their functions are not perfect. They can not detoxify and excrete various indoor pollutants entering the body, so they are polluted by indoors. More serious people with air damage.

Expert advice: How to reduce indoor air pollution damage to infants and young children?

In the absence of smog weather, open the window every day and afternoon to ventilate, no less than 2 times a day, no less than 30 minutes each time. Keep the air inside the house fresh. Because window ventilation is one of the best ways to disinfect indoor air.

In the absence of smog, let the children do more outdoor activities, especially cold training such as air bath and sunbathing, which is more necessary for infants and young children, because it is the best way to enhance children’s resistance and get vitamin D. Home decoration and home furnishing should choose green ecological building materials as much as possible. It is recommended to use diatom mud ecological wall wall, air purifier, green plants, etc. to help purify the air and increase the humidity inside the house.

Don’t take your child to a public place with lots of people and prevent exposure to more pathogens. When adults go out to take off their clothes, young mothers should minimize the use of cosmetics and hair dyes when they are in contact with children, and reduce the chance of exposure to pollution. Try to bring infants and toddlers to outdoor activities on sunny days. Not only can you enjoy cold air bathing and sunbathing, but also cold training. You can also let children intimately contact nature through outdoor activities, increase their knowledge, activate their brains and improve their recognition. Know the level. The items or toys used by the child should be cleaned or disinfected in time, and the children should be washed to prevent the pollutants from entering the mouth.

If you have smokers at home, do not smoke at home, go home and replace the outerwear, wash your hands, and minimize the harm of second-hand smoke and third-hand smoke to children.

Choose to use an air purifier, don’t just focus on high price, but more attention should be paid to its quality and effect. Choose a product that can effectively reduce PM2.5, formaldehyde, benzene and bacterial viruses, etc. The peace of mind.

Infants and young children are the most severely affected groups of indoor air pollution, protect them and pay attention to them – starting with every breath.

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Secondhand smoke and its hazards

Secondhand smoke and its hazards

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Secondhand smoke (SHS) is also known as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Secondhand smoke includes both mainstream smoke from smokers and sidestream smoke from cigarettes, cigars or pipes. In second-hand smoke, many compounds are often released more in mainstream cigarettes than in mainstream cigarettes.

Second-hand smoke harm to children

Second-hand smoke is no less harmful to passive smokers than active smokers, especially for children and young people. Often, children experience higher environmental exposures than adults, and per pound of weight, they breathe more air than adults, inhaling more pollutants. Coupled with children’s active movements, poor self-protection, and poor immune function, they are most vulnerable to contaminants.

According to the World Health Organization, the harm of second-hand smoke to children’s health mainly includes: causing childhood asthma, sudden infant death syndrome, bronchitis, pneumonia and ear inflammation. Exposure to second-hand smoke causes an increase in the incidence of 200,000 to 1 million American children with asthma, with increased symptoms; respiratory illnesses in infants and young children between 150,000 and 300,000 months, and a middle ear product The increase in the incidence of children’s diseases is related to second-hand smoke. Among them, about 7,500 to 15,000 people need hospitalization every year. In addition, about 1900 to 2700 sudden infant death syndromes are considered in the United States each year. Related to pollution.

According to the survey, the proportion of children who do not smoke with cough is 18.7%. The proportion of children whose father smokes less than one pack per day rises to 24.1%. The proportion of children who smoke more than one pack a day increases to 25.9%. Heavy air pollution can increase the risk of abnormal lung function in children by 30% to 70%.

The harm of secondhand smoke to the fetus

If pregnant women smoke second-hand smoke, the child will have a tendency to violence in the future.

The researchers found that if pregnant women often smoke or who often smoke around, there are many behavioral problems after birth, and even serious mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety. Relatively speaking, children born in a smoke-free environment are much healthier.

Beauchaine said: ‘The evidence suggests that during pregnancy, if exposed to nicotine, the dopamine system in the child’s brain becomes too excited. Dopamine is an important chemical in the brain that is associated with people’s behavior and cognitive abilities. ’

If the child starts to ‘smoke’ in the womb, health will be affected and it is difficult to ‘sleep’ quietly. When they grow up, they become hyperactive, rebellious, violent, unable to concentrate, and unhappy. Scientists advise women who are about to or intend to be mothers, preferably away from cigarettes. Because direct smoking or passive inhalation of ‘second-hand smoke’ can have a direct impact on the health of children.

Second-hand smoke harm to others

Passive smoking is no less harmful than active smokers. According to the latest research report in the United States, passive smoking means ‘second-hand smoke’ is more dangerous than previously known. Some women who live with smokers are 6 times more likely to develop lung cancer than ordinary people.

The hazards of secondhand smoke are so shocking that the United States has introduced tobacco alarms for such pollution. According to a report in the Washington Post, a woman who used a tobacco alarm for her own urine test found that his victimization was second only to the average smoker. Although the woman’s husband did not smoke at home, the residual nicotine on his body and the car had caused harm to his wife. The woman had decided to persuade her husband to quit smoking.

The main countermeasures for secondhand smoke

Regarding the prevention of lung cancer, it is the most sensible choice to stay away from cigarettes and smoke. At the same time, not only should you not take the initiative to smoke, nor let yourself smoke ‘second-hand smoke’, even in public places should try to avoid those who swallow the clouds, to avoid the harm of ‘second-hand smoke.’

(1) Eat more fresh fruits and vegetables (especially rich in carotene and vitamin C), because vitamins have anti-oxidant properties and can fight cancer (such as papaya, tomatoes, carrots, pumpkins and other fruits and vegetables). According to a report issued by the National Cancer Institute, eating more foods rich in vitamin E can reduce the risk of lung cancer in smokers. Foods rich in vitamin E include whole wheat bread, hard fruits, various seeds, green vegetables, beans, cereals and cod liver oil.

(2) Drink plenty of water and urinate more. More exercise, more perspiration, can accelerate the elimination of harmful substances such as nicotine in the body.

(3) Experts suggest that lung cancer should be based on prevention, and young people should quit smoking or smoke as little as possible. People with a history of smoking, early symptoms, such as cough, chest pain and shoulder pain, chronic respiratory diseases, or family history of the tumor, it is best to go to the hospital once a year for low-dose spiral CT examination for early detection, Early treatment.

(4) Conditional families can purchase products such as air purification to purify the indoor environment. For example, negative ion air negative ion health, negative ion purifier, air physiotherapy and other negative ion products. It has been studied that the negative ions generated by the negative ion air purification product through the negative ion converter technology and the nano-fullerene negative ion release technology can actively cover the dead space of the indoor space, which is better than the old passive adsorption type purifier. Moreover, the negative ion product neutralizes the positively charged dust generated by smoking in the air by negative ions, and the quality is increased and falls to the ground, and the effect is more obvious.

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Smoking pollution of indoor air

Smoking pollution of indoor air

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Today, there are more and more people who are exposed to smoking and passive smoking. Smokers may not have a deep understanding of the dangers of smoking to themselves and others. In fact, smoking can shorten your life. Second-hand smoke from smoking can pollute indoor air and affect the health of people around you, especially young children, babies and fetuses. Both smokers and passive smokers can take some measures to prevent tobacco damage.

Of course, the most fundamental measure is to stay away from tobacco pollution.

The harm of smoking to the human body

Smoking can shorten a person’s life. The World Health Organization report shows that the harm of smoking to humans is multifaceted, mainly leading to asthma, pneumonia, lung cancer, hypertension, heart disease and reproductive development.

Smoking is one of the main causes of chronic bronchitis, emphysema and chronic airway obstruction. Experimental studies have found that long-term smoking can damage and shorten the cilia of the bronchial mucosa, affecting the clearance function of cilia. In addition, submucosal gland hyperplasia, hypertrophy, increased mucus secretion, and changes in composition, easy to block bronchioles. In dog experiments, exposure to large amounts of soot can cause emphysema changes.

Chronic bronchitis in smokers is 2 to 4 times higher than that of non-smokers, and is proportional to the amount of smoking and smoking years. Patients often have chronic cough, sputum and difficulty breathing during activities. Pulmonary function tests showed obstruction of the airways, decreased lung compliance, decreased ventilation and diffuse function, and decreased arterial oxygen partial pressure. Even young asymptomatic smokers have mild lung dysfunction. COPD is prone to spontaneous pneumothorax. Smokers often suffer from chronic pharyngitis and vocal corditis.

Respiratory diseases are one of the most harmful diseases for Chinese people. Death caused by lung cancer ranks first among all cancers. According to the latest figures from the World Health Organization, there are 3 million people worldwide each year, with more than 8,000 people every day, and 6 people die every night from diseases caused by smoking. The deaths per minute include 1 in the United States, 2 in Europe, 1 in the former Soviet Union, 1 in China, and 1 in other countries. Experts expect this number to rise to 10 million in 2020. Currently 30% of cancers, 75% of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, and 25% of heart disease are caused by smoking. If no effective smoking ban is taken, by 2025, there will be about 10 million people worldwide each year, that is, 27,000 people a day, and 19 people will die from smoking-related diseases every minute, 70% of them in developing countries. One-third of young people are likely to become “permanent smokers,” meaning that a large number of them will die prematurely between the ages of 35 and 69. It is well known that the nuclear bombs that landed in Nagasaki and Hiroshima in Japan 50 years ago swallowed more than 200,000 people, but they ignored the current figure, which is only 1/15 of the total number of people killed by smoking each year.

The effect of smoke on indoor air

Tobacco smoke is the main source of indoor respirable particulate matter and constitutes 90% to 93% of indoor respirable particulate matter under smoking conditions. These respirable particulates are the carriers of most pollutants and microbial adsorption. Fine particles (PM2.5) with a diameter of less than 2.5 microns are more easily absorbed into the lungs and are the main health hazard in tobacco smoke. Therefore, measuring the concentration of PM2.5 in indoor air helps to understand the degree of harm of indoor tobacco smoke, and is a commonly used method for evaluating the exposure level of secondhand smoke. According to the monitoring data of PM2.5 concentration in public places, the average concentration of PM2.5 in the completely non-smoking place is the lowest, which is 33.3 μg/m3. In contrast, the average concentration of PM2.5 in non-smoking places is 103.95 μg/m3, which is more than three times the concentration of PM2.5 in a completely smoke-free place. The concentration of PM2.5 in bars and nightclubs that are not smoking-free is 4 times that of completely non-smoking places. Moreover, the concentration of PM2.5 in the smoking room of the station is 300 times that of the outdoor, and the concentration of PM2.5 measured at 5 meters from the smoking room is still 18 times that of the outdoor. 120 minutes after smoking, the concentration of inhaled particulate matter can be reduced to the standard limit.

The smoke emitted during smoking is the main source of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the general room. A cigarette emits about 80 mg of carbon monoxide and about 100 mg of carbon dioxide. Especially in some public places, people are dense, and the concentration of carbon monoxide in the air is very high. . According to the survey, in a crowded conference room, the concentration of carbon monoxide reached 46.4 mg/m3. When smoking in a normal room, the concentration of carbon monoxide was often between 2.3 and 11.6 mg/m3.

The smoke contains a high concentration of carcinogens. Cigarette smoke contains 69 kinds of carcinogens such as nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, benzopyrene and formaldehyde. The concentration of carcinogen benzopyrene can be as high as 0.16 micrograms per cubic meter of air. Moreover, the smoke of tobacco also contains a relatively high concentration of formaldehyde. As long as two cigarettes are smoked in a 30 square meter indoor space, the concentration of formaldehyde in the indoor air can reach 0.1 mg/m3 or more. At 180 minutes after smoking, the formaldehyde concentration was still exceeded.

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Summary of indoor air pollution sources

Summary of indoor air pollution sources

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Indoor air pollution definition

Indoor air pollution is caused by human activities or natural processes that cause certain substances to enter the indoor air environment, presenting sufficient concentration for a sufficient period of time and thus endangering human health or the indoor environment. Indoor air pollution includes physical pollution, chemical pollution, and biological pollution.

Indoor air pollution control measures

Indoor air pollution control can be achieved mainly in three ways, namely pollution source control, ventilation and indoor air purification. Pollution source control refers to avoiding or reducing the generation of pollutants from the source; or using barrier facilities to isolate pollutants from entering the indoor environment. Ventilation is the discharge of contaminated air that does not meet hygienic standards to the outside or to the air purification system by means of natural or mechanical forces, while fresh air or purified air is sent into the room. Indoor air purification is to use a specific purification device to purify indoor polluted air and then return it indoors or to the outside.

Indoor air pollution source control technology

1. indoor formaldehyde pollution source control

2. indoor air pollution source control

3. Indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCS) pollution source control

4. asbestos pollution source control

Indoor air pollution source control measures

(1) Strengthening the monitoring and supervision of indoor air quality

Regularly monitor indoor air quality, conduct indoor air quality assessment based on monitoring data and indoor air quality standards, and propose control strategies for indoor air pollutants.

(2) Control of indoor pollution sources

Reducing and eliminating indoor pollution sources is the most economical and effective way to improve indoor air quality and improve comfort. Reduce indoor smoking and indoor combustion processes to reduce the use of aerosols, cosmetics, and more importantly, control materials and furniture that can pollute the environment into the room; and the source control strategy is mainly to choose and Develop green building decoration materials.

(3) Strengthen indoor ventilation

Ventilation is the key to improving the air quality of the room. Strengthening ventilation and ventilation, using outdoor fresh air to dilute air pollutants, reducing concentration and improving indoor air quality, is the most convenient and quick method. The higher the indoor and outdoor air exchange rate, the higher the effect of reducing the pollutants generated indoors, but sometimes the outdoor pollutants are brought into the room.

(4) Reasonable use of air conditioners

At present, most residential buildings use air conditioners alone. The air is basically circulated indoors. If the fresh air volume is insufficient, the indoor air quality will be reduced. Therefore, it is necessary to open enough windows to introduce enough fresh air (indoor and outdoor temperature difference 5~10). At °C, 50~100m3/h). For the case of central air conditioning, filter devices should be installed on the air inlet and return air passages of the air conditioning system, and the filter device should be cleaned frequently. In addition, no matter which air-conditioning method is used, it is necessary to open the window to ventilate the air. If the indoor pollution source is strong, the air conditioner cannot be used. Only when the pollutant concentration falls below the safety and hygiene standards, it should be considered.

(5) Installation and use of effective indoor air purification facilities

Air purification devices with different functions can be selected according to different pollutants in the living room, kitchen and bathroom. For example, noiseless, air purifiers that can be used for health, air purifiers that can filter dust, bacteria and harmful gases can be improved. Room air quality. In addition, raising flowers and plants indoors can not only effectively absorb harmful substances in the air, but also beautify the living environment.

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How to prevent indoor pollution that is pervasive?

How to prevent indoor pollution that is pervasive?

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According to scientific data, people spend more than 70% of their time indoors. Some people spend more than 90% of their indoor activities. Indoor air pollution is more harmful to the human body than outdoor pollution, and respiratory diseases and cardiovascular diseases are frequent. Hair is inseparable from indoor pollution.

70% of the time in indoor activities PM2.5 causes respiratory and cardiovascular diseases

Relevant statistics show that humans spend at least 70% of their time indoors, while urban population spends more than 90% indoors, especially for infants and the elderly. About 68% of human diseases are related to room pollution.

There are many types of indoor pollution, which exist in every corner.

For many people, the most common room pollution is formaldehyde, but PM2.5 knows very little. Meteorologists and medical experts believe that the haze weather caused by fine particles is even more harmful to human health than sandstorms. In particular, fine particles with a diameter of less than 2.5 microns, such as PM2.5, have a diameter equivalent to 1/10 of the size of human hair. These fine particles are pervasive and enter the body and enter the bronchial tubes, interfering with the gas exchange in the lungs, causing asthma, bronchi. Diseases such as inflammation and cardiovascular disease. These granules can also enter the blood through the bronchi and alveoli, and harmful gases, heavy metals and the like are dissolved in the blood, which is more harmful to human health.

Air purifier

Air purifiers, also known as ‘air cleaners’, air purifiers, purifiers, are capable of adsorbing, decomposing or converting various air pollutants (generally including PM2.5, dust, pollen, odor, formaldehyde, etc.) , bacteria, allergens, etc., products that effectively improve air cleanliness, mainly divided into household, commercial, industrial, building and so on.

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