PM2.5 has become one of the important causes of high asthma
In recent years, the incidence of asthma has been on the rise, especially in children with increased incidence of asthma. Respiratory experts explain that this has a lot to do with the increasing air pollution in recent years, and PM2.5 is an important cause of high incidence of asthma.
Why is the prevalence of asthma high? Respiratory experts explain that this has a lot to do with the increasing air pollution in recent years, and PM2.5 is an important cause of high incidence of asthma. Especially in the continuous smog weather, the number of patients who came to see a doctor in the respiratory department of major hospitals increased significantly.
First, know asthma
Asthma is bronchial asthma, which is often referred to as ‘cracking disease’, ‘air urgency’ and ‘asthma disease’. It is the most common chronic non-specific inflammatory disease in the airway and is the most common chronic disease in the world. One.
The pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammation in asthma is complex, mainly related to allergic reactions and abnormalities in immune regulation. In a popular way, it is allergic or sensitive to the airway, resulting in recurrent cough, wheezing, difficulty breathing, chest tightness and other symptoms, mostly at night or in the early hours of the morning. These symptoms can be relieved by themselves or quickly relieved by treatment.
In addition to typical bronchial asthma, there is a special type of asthma that varies from cough, which is easily overlooked or misdiagnosed, namely ‘variable asthma.’ Its main symptoms are coughing only, paroxysmal and irritating dry cough at night, and patients usually have no obvious upper respiratory tract infections and fever before coughing, and are often misdiagnosed as bronchitis. If the child has a cold or cough, parents should be careful if they have asthma. Many parents mistakenly treat asthma as a cold and delay treatment.
Asthma and rhinitis are sisters
Pay attention to asthma and pay attention to allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is closely related to asthma. The survey found that 80% of asthma patients with allergic rhinitis, most asthma patients have asthma or simultaneous onset of rhinitis. Asthma and rhinitis belong to an airway, which is also a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway, thus supporting the idea that ‘one respiratory tract, one disease’ is a sister. Allergic rhinitis is also a risk factor for asthma, so early treatment of allergic rhinitis Can reduce the incidence of late asthma.
Second, how does smog induce asthma?
In addition to congenital genetic factors, the onset of asthma has a lot to do with the environment. Such as urban air pollution, home decoration, second-hand smoke, pets, carpeting, pollen, etc. can induce asthma. With the increase of urban air pollution, smog has become an important cause of high incidence of asthma.
A large amount of PM2.5 particles in the smog, the human nose and throat have been blocked, they can go down all the way into the bronchioles, alveoli, and then enter the capillaries through the alveolar wall, and then enter the entire blood circulation system. The most direct and most influential one is the damage to the respiratory system.
Sulfate, sulfur dioxide, heavy metals and various bacterial viruses carried in PM2.5 are easy to invade the human respiratory tract. A large amount of particulate matter enters the lungs and has a clogging effect on local tissues, which can reduce the ventilation of local bronchus, bronchioles and alveoli. The loss of ventilation function, particulate matter adsorbed by harmful gases can also stimulate or even corrode the alveolar wall. The most direct effect is that it is easy to cause respiratory tract irritation, poor breathing, chest tightness, dry cough, dry throat and itching, etc. Long-term inhalation is easy to cause rhinitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis and other diseases, and it is easy to cause chronic diseases such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. Acute attack.
Previously, a study in Hong Kong confirmed that the increase in air pollution was significantly associated with an increase in hospitalization rates in patients with allergic asthma. When the sulfur dioxide in the air increased to 10μg/m2, the relative risk of admission was 1.017. When the sulfur dioxide in the air increased by 10μg/m2, the proportion of acute allergic asthma hospitalization increased by 3.3%. Nitric oxide, ozone and atmospheric particulate matter can be used. Increasing the proportion of hospitalization for patients with allergic asthma increased by 5.5%, 5.9%, and 3.0%, respectively, suggesting that these four air pollutants are important factors in the aggravation of allergic asthma.
Third, how to prevent asthma in smog days
For people with a genetic history of asthma
1. Smog days to minimize going out or wearing a mask
When encountering dense fog weather, try to reduce your outing. If you have to go out, it is best to wear a professional anti-PM2.5 mask and try to use a version with a breathing valve. In addition to filtering some of the particles in the air, it can also warm the cold air and reduce the stimulation of the respiratory tract.
2. Determine allergens
To prevent asthma, first determine your body’s allergens. Dust mites, cats, dog skin scales, mold, pollen, milk, eggs, silk, feathers, moths, cotton wool, fungi, drugs, etc. are all important allergens. For patients with food-induced asthma attacks, first determine which food is allergic to it. You can go to the hospital for personal allergen testing.
3. Pay attention to climate change and prevent colds.
Winter and spring are the high incidence of asthma, the weather suddenly changes or the pressure is reduced, etc. Cold and cold and upper respiratory tract infection are the most common causes, so pay more attention to keep warm and prevent colds.
4. Pay attention to adjusting mood and avoid excessive fatigue.
Anxiety, sadness, over-excitement, and even laughter can also lead to asthma attacks. People who are psychologically vulnerable and have psychological barriers will feel abnormally heavy, nervous, and depressed in this weather. These people should pay attention to emotional regulation in the foggy days. You can listen to music and do something that you feel happy about. Maintain good exercise habits and daily routines, and don’t get too tired.
5. Drink plenty of water and eat more lungs and fruits and vegetables
For smoggy weather, choose a food that is lighter and rich in vitamins C and A. Eat more fresh vegetables and fruits such as spinach, tomatoes, carrots, oranges, grapes, kiwis, etc. Drinking plenty of water can also help the body to expel toxins.
6, cough, chest tightness, need medical attention
Children’s immune function is not perfect, it is more sensitive to external stimuli, and it is easy to cause asthma attacks in case of severe air pollution. Many children start to have cold symptoms at the beginning. Many parents think that their children only have a cold and don’t pay attention to it. When the acute episode comes to the hospital for treatment, it has often developed to the severity of breathing difficulties. Therefore, when the child has cough, chest tightness, sneezing, and spit white foam, the inhalation is relatively smooth, but you should seek medical advice if you have a bad breath. Otherwise, the terrible consequences of collapse may occur.
Have asthma in the family
1. Improve the living environment to avoid asthma
There are a large number of allergens in the living environment that can cause asthma attacks, such as dust mites and fungi. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the living environment and minimize the allergens. The bedroom should be simple, don’t hang fluffy jewelry, don’t put any good items such as carpets and fabric sofas, and don’t keep cats, dogs and other pets. Parents must not smoke.
Bed bedding should be exposed frequently, tapped, and washable bedding such as bedspreads, duvet covers, etc. should be cleaned frequently, and washed with hot water above 55 °C or even 100 °C to kill mites. If the economic conditions permit, the bedding should be replaced once every 2 to 5 years.
2. Adhere to the standard medication
Respiratory patients should insist on taking the medicine on time in the fog to avoid the disease. Pay attention to your body’s feelings and reactions, and seek medical advice if you feel unwell.
3. correct window ventilation
In the smoggy weather, avoid the traffic peaks in the morning and evening, and open the window twice a day for 20-40 minutes under static wind conditions. Increasing the humidity in the room, excessive drying in the room will increase the dust in the air.
4. In the diet, we must pay attention to the ‘six but not’ principle: eating should not be too salty, too sweet (chocolate), too greasy (animal fat), should not eat too much spicy, spicy and other foods, should not eat too much allergenic protein Food (milk, fish, seafood, etc.) should not be full.
5. Develop good habits, limit the amount of exercise, avoid overwork and mental stress, stimulation.
6.Install the air purifier
It is best to install an air purifier with PM2.5 particles in the home. It is good for removing PM2.5, and it can increase the relative humidity in the air and make it more comfortable to breathe.
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