Air pollution hazard
The main hazards of air pollution are as follows:
Harm the human body
The harm of air pollutants to the human body is multi-faceted. The main manifestations are respiratory diseases and physiological dysfunction, as well as mucosal tissues such as the eyes and nose are irritated and sick. It is a chronic factor causing asthma in the elderly, and the lack of lungs leads to physical decline.
When the concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere is high, it can cause acute pollution poisoning, or worsen the condition, and even kill thousands of lives in a few days. In fact, even if the concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere is not high, the human body will breathe this polluted air for years, causing diseases such as chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, emphysema and lung cancer.
Among the latest rankings of deaths among urban residents in China, the National Health and Family Planning Commission ranks first in malignant tumor deaths, with lung cancer ranking first. The incidence of lung cancer in China is 27% higher than that of males and 22% in females.
Harm to plants
Air pollutants, especially sulfur dioxide and fluoride, are very harmful to plants. When the concentration of pollutants is high, it will cause acute damage to plants, causing damage on the surface of plant leaves, or directly causing leaves to wither and fall off; when the concentration of pollutants is not high, it will cause chronic damage to plants, causing plant leaves to chlorotic. Or, on the surface, no harmful symptoms can be seen, but the physiological functions of the plants have been affected, resulting in a decrease in plant yield and deterioration in quality.
The effects of atmospheric pollutants on weather and climate are very significant and can be explained in the following aspects:
1. Reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground: a large amount of soot particles emitted from the factory, power station, automobile, and home heating equipment to the atmosphere, causing empty acid rain
The gas becomes very turbid and blocks sunlight, reducing the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground. According to observations, in the days when smoke is not scattered in large industrial cities, the amount of sunlight directly shining on the ground is reduced by nearly 40% compared to the days without smoke. Cities with severe air pollution, every day, will cause people, animals and plants to grow and develop due to lack of sunlight.
2. Increasing atmospheric precipitation: Particles discharged from large industrial cities, many of which have the function of water condensation nuclei. Therefore, when there are other precipitation conditions in the atmosphere to match it, precipitation weather will occur. In the downwind areas of large industrial cities, precipitation is more.
3. Acid rain: Sometimes, the rainwater falling from the sky contains sulfuric acid. This acid rain is a pollutant in the atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized to form sulfuric acid, which is formed by the precipitation of nature. Sulfuric acid rain can destroy large areas of forests and crops, and can cause corrosion of paper products, textiles, leather products, etc., which can deteriorate the metal anti-rust paint and reduce the protective effect, and also corrode the pollution of buildings. In the case of large industrial cities, the temperature of the near-surface air is higher than that of the surrounding suburbs due to the large amount of waste heat being discharged into the air. This phenomenon is called “heat island effect” in meteorology.
After research, it is believed that carbon dioxide plays a major role in various atmospheric pollutants that may cause climate change. About 50% of the large amount of carbon dioxide emitted from the numerous chimneys and other exhaust pipes on the earth into the atmosphere remains in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide can absorb long-wave radiation from the ground, increasing the temperature of the near-surface air. This is called the “greenhouse effect.” After a rough estimate, if the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere increases by 25%, the near-surface temperature can be increased by 0.5 to 2 °C. If it is increased by 100%, the near-surface temperature can be increased by 1.5 to 6 °C. Some experts believe that the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere will increase at a rate after 2000, which will accelerate the melting of ice in the Arctic and the Arctic, leading to global climate anomalies.
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