What exactly is PM2.5?
The mammoth smog weather has had a great impact on our lives. We all know that PM2.5 is an important part of smog. So what exactly is PM2.5? What is its true face?
PM2.5 means ‘fine particles’
The ‘PM’ of PM2.5 is an abbreviation of ‘particulate matter’ in English, meaning ‘fine particles’. The ‘2.5’ of PM2.5 refers to 2.5 microns, 1000 microns = 1 mm, and 2.5 microns corresponds to 1/20 of the diameter of the hair. Therefore, fine particles of 2.5 microns in diameter are invisible to the naked eye.
Seeing the light column means that the air is already polluted, because the air itself does not reflect light, only the fine particles in the air will reflect light, and the clearer the light column, the more PM.
PM2.5 is the critical value of reaching the alveoli and has an all-round effect on the human body.
PM2.5 is the critical value for reaching the alveoli. Fine particles below PM2.5, the upper respiratory tract can not stop, they can go down all the way into the bronchioles, alveoli. Our respiratory system is like the roots of plants. From top to bottom, the trachea separates the bronchi. The bronchi is divided into many dense bronchioles. The dense bronchioles are connected with dense alveoli. The number of alveoli is 3-4 million. The inhaled oxygen eventually enters the alveoli, then enters the capillaries through the alveolar wall and enters the entire blood circulation system.
The PM2.5 that we suck in, because it is too small, can enter the alveoli, then enter the capillaries through the alveolar wall and enter the entire blood circulation system.
PM2.5 carries many harmful organic and inorganic molecules and is the source of the disease. Bacteria are a well-known source of disease, and PM2.5 is comparable to bacteria.
PM2.5 is a fine particle with a diameter of 2.5 microns. The bacteria are micron-sized organisms. The size is 1 micron, a few micrometers, and a dozen micrometers, that is, PM2.5 and bacteria are generally the size. When the bacteria enter the blood, the macrophages in the blood (a kind of immune cells) will swallow it immediately, and it can’t make people sick. It is like a tiger eating chicken.
PM2.5 enters the bloodstream, and the macrophages in the blood think that it is phagocytic and will swallow it immediately. Macrophages swallow the bacteria, bacteria are the living body, and are the food of macrophages. However, PM2.5 is inanimate, and macrophages swallow it, like a tiger swallowing stones, unable to digest, and eventually being killed. After a large reduction in macrophages, our immunity will decline.
Not only that, but the dead macrophages also release harmful substances, leading to inflammation of cells and tissues. It can be seen that PM2.5 is more pathogenic than bacteria, and the more PM2.5 that enters the blood, the more likely we are to get sick.
The harm of PM2.5 to the human body:
1.Causing airway obstruction or inflammation
Research reality, 75% of PM2.5 and below particles are deposited in the alveoli. We can imagine that the eyes are in the sand and the eyes will be inflamed. Deep in the respiratory system is also a sensitive environment. Fine particulate matter stays in the respiratory system as a foreign body for a long time, which also causes inflammation of the respiratory system.
2.Pathogenic microorganisms, chemical pollutants, soot and other ‘ride’ into the body to cause cancer
In addition to doing bad things for yourself, PM2.5 is like a car that can enter the respiratory system freely. Other medical substances such as bacteria and viruses ‘catch the car’ into the deep respiratory system, causing infection. Epidemiological investigations have found that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban atmospheric particulate matter are associated with morbidity and mortality in residents with lung cancer. In the process of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons entering the human body, fine particles play a role as a windmill. Most of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are adsorbed on the surface of the particles, especially on particles with a diameter of less than 5 mm, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on large particles. Very few. In other words, the more PM2.5 in the air, the more opportunities we have for exposure to carcinogen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
3.Affecting fetal development caused by defects
Some reports this year show that human reproductive capacity is declining significantly, and environmental pollution is considered the culprit. A survey from northern Bohemia conducted a study of pregnant women exposed to high concentrations of PM2.5 and found that high concentrations of fine particulate contaminants may affect fetal development. More studies have found that concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter are associated with increased preterm birth, neonatal mortality, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, and congenital dysfunction.
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