What are the harmful substances in the indoor air?
Helium ammonia is a colorless, highly irritating odor that is lighter than air (specific gravity 0.5). Ammonia is an alkaline substance that corrodes and irritates the skin tissue that it contacts. It absorbs water from skin tissue, denatures tissue proteins, and saponifies tissue fat and destroys cell membrane structure. When the concentration is too high, in addition to corrosive effects, cardiac arrest and respiratory arrest can be caused by the reverse action of the trigeminal nerve endings. Ammonia is usually inhaled into the alveoli in the form of a gas. After being inhaled into the lungs, ammonia easily enters the bloodstream through the alveoli and combines with hemoglobin to destroy the oxygen transport function. The solubility of ammonia is extremely high, so it is mainly irritating and corrosive to the upper respiratory tract of animals or the human body and weakens the body’s resistance to disease. A small amount of ammonia is neutralized by carbon dioxide, and the remaining small amount of ammonia is absorbed into the blood and can be excreted with sweat, urine or respiratory tract. Some people may have symptoms such as skin pigmentation or finger ulcers when exposed to ammonia for a long time; tears, sore throat, hoarseness, cough, bloodshot, chest tightness, difficulty breathing, may be accompanied by dizziness after inhaling a large amount of ammonia in a short period of time. Symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue may cause pulmonary edema, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and respiratory irritation. Therefore, the damage of alkaline substances to tissues is deeper and more serious than that of acidic substances.
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